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Pharmacotherapeutic group
Antimicrobial drug, fluoroquinolone
International name
Dosage form
Solution for infusion
Description Manufacturer Pharmacies Leave a feedback
Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, fluoroquinolone derivative. It inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II and IV responsible for DNA supercoiling around nucleus RNA which is essential for genetic code reading), blocks DNA synthesis, growth and replication of bacteria, causes significant morphological changes (including those of the cell wall and membrane), and results in a rapid death of the bacterial cell. It has a bactericidal effect against both resting and dividing Gram-negative microorganisms (as, in addition to inhibiting DNA gyrase, it lyses bacterial cell walls) and against Gram-positive microorganisms at the resting stage. Its low toxicity to host cells is due to the fact that DNA gyrases are absent from higher eukaryotes. Ciprofloxacin use does not lead to an emergence of resistance to other types of antibiotics that do not belong to the gyrase inhibitor group which makes it highly effective against bacteria resistant, for instance, to aminoglycosides, penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and many other antibiotics. The following microorganisms are susceptible to ciprofloxacin: Gram-negative aerobes such as enterobacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, Providencia spp., Morganella morganii, Vibrio spp., Yersinia spp.), other Gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, Aeromonas spp., Pasteurella multocida, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria spp.), some intracellular pathogens (Legionella pneumophila, Brucella spp., Chlamydia trachomatis, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Corynebacterium diphtheriae); Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus), Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae). Most of methicillin-resistant staphylococci are also ciprofloxacin resistant. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium avium (located intracellularly) are moderately susceptible to it (high concentrations are required for their inhibition). Bacteroides fragilis, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Clostridium difficile, Nocardia asteroides are ciprofloxacin-resistant. It is ineffective against Treponema pallidum. Resistance to ciprofloxacin emerges slowly because, on the one hand, following use of ciprofloxacin there are almost no persisting microorganisms and, on the other hand, bacterial cells lack ciprofloxacin inactivating enzymes.
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